The following presume organic ingredients, especially in the case of commonly genetically engineered foods like corn.
1 Cup of white (wheat) flour can be substituted with:
-½ Cup arrowroot or tapioca with ½ cup of another flour or nut meal
7/8 Cup buckwheat or amaranth flour
3/4 cup brown rice flour and 1/4 cup sweet rice flour
¾ Cup organic cornstarch or 7/8 Cup organic corn flour or 1 Cup Cornmeal
¾ Cup oat flour 1/4 cup tapioca starch
Alternative gluten free flour mix (2 1/2 cups)
1/2 cup coconut flour
1/2 cup Ancient Harvest quinoa flakes
1/2 cup almond flour
1/2 cup tapioca starch
(credit to Gluten Free Goddess website)
Unsweetened (or lightly sweetened) rice milk
Unsweetened (or lightly sweetened) soy milk
Unsweetened oat milk
Unsweetened nut or seed milks (almond, cashew, brazil, filbert, macadamia, sesame, sunflower)
(Soybella Milk Maker with the raw and cooked function is very helpful for making all kinds of milks)
These will be variously suited depending on the recipe.
1 T ground flaxseed or flax meal with 2 T water. Mix and add to recipe.
1 T whole or ground flaxseed with ¼ C water in saucepan. While stirring constantly, bring to boil on high. Cook on medium for 1-2 minutes until thickened to consistency of egg white.
1 T psyllium powder mixed with 3 T water. Let it stand briefly before adding to recipe
1 T tahini with 3 T water
For dipping food into before breading: 2 T starch (arrowroot, kudzu, tapioca, potato, and cornstarch)
1 T lecithin granules with 3 T water
¼ C tofu
3 T thick pureed apple
½ teaspoon baking powder, 2 T flour, and 1 ½ teaspoons oil
1 teaspoon plain unflavored gelatin dissolved with 3 T water. Place in freezer, Take out when thickened and beat until frothy.
Fresh lemon or lime juice, unsweetened cranberry juice or dilute vitamin C (ascorbic acid) mix 1 teaspoon in ¼ cup of water.